Languages

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This world map shows the locations amongst the locals of the French language. Credit: Jonatan argento.

There are "approximately 3,000–6,000 languages that are spoken by humans today".[1]

Linguistics

Theoretical languages

Def. "[a] form of communication using words either spoken or gestured with the hands and structured with grammar, often with a writing system"[2] is called a language.

"Language may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication."[1]

If there is at least one human or hominin language, why are there more than one?

Dominant language

The Wikipedia dominant language by country is indicated by different colors. Credit: Leonst & Sehrg.

Def. a "[l]anguage spoken by the dominant social group, or language that is seen as the main language of a country"[3] is called a dominant language.

Language families

Def. "[a] set of languages which have evolved from a common ancestor"[4] is called a language family.

Research

Hypothesis:

  1. Each of today's languages contains a synonym for dominant group.

Control groups

Images:Lewis rat.jpg
This is an image of a Lewis rat. Credit: Charles River Laboratories.

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

“In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s).[5] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.[6]"[7]

Proof of concept

Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility"[8] is called a proof of concept.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[9]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Language, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 20, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
  2. "language, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 6, 2013. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/language. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
  3. Sheldon Shaeffer (2007). "Advocacy Kit for Promoting Multilingual Education: Including the Excluded". 920 Sukhumvit Road, Prakanong, Bangkok 10110. Thailand: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001521/152198e.pdf. Retrieved 2012-08-29.
  4. "language family, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 6, 2013. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/language_family. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
  5. Klaus Hinkelmann, Oscar Kempthorne (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9. http://books.google.com/?id=T3wWj2kVYZgC&printsec=frontcover.
  6. R. A. Bailey (2008). Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9. http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521683579.
  7. "Treatment and control groups, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 18, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_group. Retrieved 2012-05-31.
  8. "proof of concept, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 10, 2012. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/proof_of_concept. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
  9. <scribunto-parser-error>

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