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The image shows a full length view of an adult blue whale. Credit: NOAA Fisheries (TBjornstad).

Zoology is a biological science that pertains to animals.


"A recent comparison of the draft sequences of mouse and human genomes has shed light on the selective forces that have predominated in their recent evolutionary histories. In particular, mouse-specific clusters of homologues associated with roles in reproduction, immunity and host defence appear to be under diversifying positive selective pressure, as indicated by high ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates. These clusters are also frequently punctuated by homologous pseudogenes. They thus have experienced numerous gene death, as well as gene birth, events. These regions appear, therefore, to have borne the brunt of adaptive evolution that underlies physiological and behavioural innovation in mice. We predict that the availability of numerous animal genomes will give rise to a new field of genome zoology in which differences in animal physiology and ethology are illuminated by the study of genomic sequence variations."[1]

Def. "that part of biology which relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct"[2] is called zoology.

A malayan tiger is a mammal. Credit: B_cool from Singapore.

Def. the "study of mammals"[3] is called mammalogy.

Accipiter striatus venator is the Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk. Credit: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Southeast Region.

Def. "the scientific study of birds"[4] is called ornithology.

This mounted specimen of Apatosaurus louisae is in the Carnegie Museum. Credit: Tadek Kurpaski from London, Poland.

Def. "branch of paleontology that focuses on studying dinosaurs"[5] is called dinosaurology.

The tuatara is a modern dinosaur. Credit: Knutschie.

Def. a study of reptiles is called herpetology.

The red milk snake is an ophiid. Credit: BillC.

Def. the "study of snakes"[6]is called ophiology.

Bufo periglenes is the golden toad. Credit: Charles H. Smith.

Def. the "study of amphibians"[7] is called batrachology.

A preserved coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) and its pup at the Sant Hall of Oceans at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., USA. Credit: Tim Evanson.

Def. "the study of fish"[8] is called ichthyology.

Considered a "living fossil" because it is an ancient class of lobe-limbed fish that went extinct more than 70 million years ago, the first living coelacanth was caught off the east coast of South Africa near the Chalumna River in 1938.

Today, at least two major populations of coelacanths are known: one off east Africa, and another near Indonesia. Coelacanths cannot be eaten; their flesh contains an oil that is highly distasteful to human beings.

This specimen in the image above weighs 160 pounds (72.6 kg) and measures 5.5 feet (1.67 m) in length.

Crinoid on the reef of Batu Moncho Island is near Komodo, Indonesia. Credit: Alexander Vasenin.

Def. study of the echinoderms is called echinodermology.

Images:Callioratis grandis.jpg
This is a natural image of Callioratis grandis. Credit: Bruce Byers.

Def. the "scientific study of butterflies and moths"[9] is called lepidopterology.

On the right is an example of Callioratis grandis from Mulanje Mountain, Africa.

This image is a drawing of Haloquadratum walsbyi. Credit: Rotational.

Def. the "study of all life or living matter"[10] is called biology.

On the right is a drawing of the archaean Haloquadratum walsbyi.


  1. The genetic classification of animals may not match the current classification without genetic evidence.

Control groups

Images:Lewis rat.jpg
This is an image of a Lewis rat. Credit: Charles River Laboratories.

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

“In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s).[11] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.[12]"[13]

Proof of concept

Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility"[14] is called a proof of concept.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[15]

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  2. "zoology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 8, 2014. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/zoology. Retrieved 2014-05-18.
  3. "mammalogy, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 16 December 2014. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mammalogy. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  4. "ornithology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 16 December 2014. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ornithology. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  5. "dinosaurology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 4 February 2015. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dinosaurology. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  6. "ophiology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 16 December 2014. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ophiology. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  7. "batrachology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 16 June 2014. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/batrachology. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  8. Tedius Zanarukando (30 March 2005). "ichthyology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ichthyology. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  9. "lepidopterology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 7 October 2013. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/lepidopterology. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  10. "biology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 23 February 2015. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/biology. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  11. Klaus Hinkelmann, Oscar Kempthorne (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9. http://books.google.com/?id=T3wWj2kVYZgC&printsec=frontcover.
  12. R. A. Bailey (2008). Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9. http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521683579.
  13. "Treatment and control groups, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 18, 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_group. Retrieved 2012-05-31.
  14. "proof of concept, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 10, 2012. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/proof_of_concept. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
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      Nuvola apps edu languages.svg Resource type: this resource contains a lecture or lecture notes.
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      PLoSBiol3.5.Fig1bNucleus46Chromosomes.jpg Subject classification: this is a genetics resource.

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